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2023 Presidency: Ex-President Jonathan Constitutionally Qualified To Run For Only One Term – Lawyer

He added that different courts have, over the years, declared retroactive application of laws as reprehensive and abusive.

Abdul Aminu Mahmud, a Nigerian lawyer, and social critic has said former President Goodluck Jonathan is eligible to contest the 2023 presidential election.
The lawyer said this in a statement on Friday.


According to the former students’ leader, Jonathan only served a term of four years from 2011 to 2015 while the one year of the late Umaru Yar'Adua, which he completed as Acting President doesn't count as part of his presidential term.
He added that different courts have, over the years, declared retroactive application of laws as reprehensive and abusive, stressing that the provisions of Section 137(3) of the 1999 constitution were not and would not present an exception simply because some persons desire it to be so.
“A lot has been made of Section 137 (3) of the Constitution 1999 (With Alterations). As far as I am aware, the arguments that Dr Jonathan is not constitutionally qualified to seek the presidential office were first canvassed by my friend and former undergraduate classmate, Dr Law Mefor, in November 2020. Just yesterday, my friend and comrade, Femi Falana (SAN), canvassed the same arguments. I don't agree with them,” he said.
“With respect to Section 137(3) CFRN 1999, statutes are construed as operating only in cases or on facts which came into existence after the statutes were passed unless a retroactive effect is intended. Section 137(3) is not in any way retroactive or retrospective, nor is it intended to be so (The SC decisions of Obayemi v PDP (2019), Gusau v APC (2019) & Kusamotu v APC (2019 were held for a different reason - computation of time ) - it is prospective because it deals with substantive rights, not time computation or the extinguishment of the procedure.
“The Supreme Court clarified retroactive and prospective statutes in Ojokolobo v Alamu (1998) and I'm of the view that this decision would help us to correctly interpret Section 137(3), without importing absurdity to the intention of the drafters.
“This is what the Supreme Court held: ‘It is a cardinal principle of our law that a statute operates prospectively and cannot apply retrospectively unless it is made to do so by clear and express terms or it only affects purely procedural matters and does not affect the rights of the parties: Oshinye v. Commissioner of Police 5 FSC 105 at 112, Kimbray v. Draper (1868) L.R. 3 QR. 160 at 163, In re Suche & Co. Ltd. (1875) 1 Ch. 48 at 50, Colonial Sugar Refining Co. v. Irving (1905) A. C. 369 at 172.
“The Supreme Court further clarified in Ojokolobo's case that ‘Generally, statutes are construed as operating only in cases or on facts which come into existence after the statutes were passed unless a retrospective effect is clearly intended’.
“It is a fundamental rule of Nigerian law (received from English law) that no statute shall be construed to have a retrospective operation unless such a construction appears very clearly in the terms of the Act or Law, or arises by necessary and distinct implication see ‘Re Athlumney (1898) 2 Q.B. 551 at pp. 551. 552’. What do we mean by retrospective operation of a statute? A statute is a retrospective “which takes away or impairs any vested right acquired under existing laws or creates a new obligation or imposes a new duty, or attaches a new disability in respect to transactions or considerations already past.”- Per Obaseki JSC.
“What my friends appear to make out is that S.137(3) of the Constitution 1999 is retroactive. The decisions of Obayemi, Gusau and Kusamotu deal with the computation of time to file a pre-election appeal and not substantive rights. Our guide on this issue is Ojokolobo's case.

“My friends’ arguments are an absurd interpretation of Section 137(3) CFRN 1979. Statutes are construed as operating only in cases or on facts which came into existence after the statutes were passed unless a retroactive effect is intended. The retroactive provision of a statute can never extinguish the rights established by a substantive law. A retroactive law can never impair existing rights or obligations, except the right or obligation is of the procedure. Section 137 (3) is thus perspective, to the extent that it takes effect in the future, by affirming the substantive right to seek elective office.
“Furthermore on the question of whether Dr Jonathan can spend more than two terms of eight years of the Presidential terms of office, my answer is that Dr Jonathan previously served a term of four years from 2011-2015. The one year of the late Yar'Adua doesn't count as part of his Presidential term. The Court of Appeal in Cyriakus Njoku v Dr Jonathan and Ors (2015) clarified this point and distinguished it from the Supreme Court decision in Marwa v Nyarko (2012) and held that the one year of Yar'Adua served out by Dr Jonathan doesn't fall within the computational term of four years because Dr Jonathan was appointed by the Constitution (Section 137(1) and (2)) and not elected as President. The Court further held that Dr Jonathan had only previously sworn to one oath of office - Oath as elected Vice President, not President.
“I don't support the regressive adventure and morally hollow decision of Dr Jonathan to run for another term, either in APC or whatever party he chooses; my purpose here is to join to give clarity to the law until the court makes a pronouncement on Section 137 (3).”
Senior Advocate of Nigeria, Femi Falana had on Wednesday said Jonathan cannot seek re-election into the office of the President according to the constitution.
President Muhammadu Buhari had on June 4, 2018, signed a constitutional amendment that stops a Vice President who completes the term of a President from contesting for the office of the President more than one more time.
The law also stops a deputy governor who completes the term of a governor from seeking a second term in office as a governor.
A President’s term can be cut short by reasons of death, resignation, or death to pave the way for the Vice-President to complete the term of the departed President.
Following the death of then-President Umaru Yar’Adua on May 5, 2010, Jonathan as the then Vice-President, took a new oath of office to complete Yar’Adua’s term as President.
He was also sworn in for another term on May 29, 2011, after he won the presidential poll of that year.
According to Falana, Jonathan is affected by the constitution amendment.

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